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Classical Societies

Classical Societies
Classical Greece
The ancient Greeks relied more on observations of the world and sought the universal idea in each form. Ancient Greeks believed that the body and mind is of the most importance (Benton & DiYanni, 2008). One of the most famous sculptures is Myron??™s Discobolus (Discus Thrower) original ca.450 B.C.E., this life size sculpture to the ancient Greek represents the perfect body. The Greeks celebrated the human body and physical accomplishment through the sporting contests which we know today as the Olympics. Greek sculptures represent stories about Events, Heroes, Gods, and Mythical Creatures.
Hellenistic Greece
Battle of the Gods and the Giants, Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, ca. 180-160 B.C.E.( Benton & DiYanni, 2008). this sculpture represents the god??™s triumph over the giants and represents victory. This sculpture shows Athena grabbing the hair from a winged monster. This is a great time of prosperity that encourages the production of art of a more secular nature. A new reality emerges in Greek sculpture. Instead of depicting ideals such as logic and suppressed emotion or perfect beauty, the artists explore reality (Hill 2009). According to Greek Landscapes (2009), the emphasis of Hellenistic art shifted from religious and naturalistic themes towards more dramatic human expression, psychological, spiritual preoccupation, and theatrical settings. The sculpture of this period abandons the self-containment of the earlier styles and appears to embrace its physical surroundings with dramatic groupings and creative landscaping of its context.

Etruscan civilization
The Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquina, wall painting, ca 520 B.C.E. (Benton & DiYanni, 2008). These paintings illustrate a man trying to catch fish, and a man trying to shoot a bird with a slingshot. This type of mural depicts energy and humor. Etruscan paintings revealed everyday events including dancing, music, and games. They painted natural, realistic, and playful scenes, expressing their joy for life. Etruscans were very much interested in the hereafter and in ensuring that their dead were comfortable in the afterlife (Benton & DiYanni, 2008). As like the Egyptians the Etruscans also believed in the afterlife. The tombs were carved from rock were within the walls, windows, and even the doorframes, they found necessary to include household objects things that the deceased may need in the afterlife.
Roman Republic
The Temple of Vesta, ca. 80 B.C.E., Rome. Romans preferred the use of the circular temple. The temples to Vesta were round, and the entrances always faced east to symbolize connection between Vesta??™s fire and the sun as sources of life. The Temple of Vesta was considered the ancestral hearth of the Roman Nation. It was the place where the objects that Aeneas supposedly had bought from Troy were kept, and it was the temple that was guarded by the Vestal Virgins, the only female priesthood in Rome. Romans were more impressed with the size of their building, sculptures, and temples. They placed importance on specific people, places, and times when building their temples.
Roman Empire
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, 164-66 C.E. This equestrian statue became a model for future representations of military leaders (Benton & DiYanni, 2008). This statue represents authority and heavenly greatness. The statue has no evidence of any weapons or armor. Marcus Aurelius was representation of peace no such much a military hero, and this is how he saw himself, and his reign. The Equestrian Statue of Marcus is the only standing from that era. There were other statues that were sculpted but were melted down for coins.